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The Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral (German: Operationszone Adriatisches Küstenland (OZAK) or, colloquially, Operationszone Adria; Template:Lang-it, Template:Lang-sl) Template:Lang-hr),, was a Nazi German puppet district on the Adriatic coast including parts of present-day Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia [1] during World War II. It was administered as part of the Reichsgau of Carinthia. The capital of the zone was Trieste.

BackgroundEdit

OZAK was established, with its headquarters in Trieste, on 10 September 1943 by Hitler[2], as a response to the Italian capitulation (8 September 1943) following the Allied invasion of Italy. It comprised the provinces of Udine, Gorizia, Trieste, Pula (Pola), Rijeka (Fiume) and Ljubljana (Lubiana). The Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills, comprising the provinces of Belluno, Bolzano-Bozen, and Trento, was established on the same day. Both operations zones formally belonged to the Italian Social Republic, which governed those areas of Italy not yet occupied by the Allies from Salò at Lake Garda.

Friedrich Rainer, Nazi Gauleiter of Carinthia was appointed Reich Defence Commissar of OZAK, thereby becoming chief of the civil administration. The province of Ljubljana was given a Slovenian provincial administration. Leading collaborator Gregorij Rožman, Bishop of Ljubljana, recommended to Rainer that notorious anti-Semite Leon Rupnik should be the president of the new Ljubljana provincial government [3], and Rupnik was then duly appointed on 22 September 1943. SS General Erwin Rösener became Advisor to the President.

Genocidal activitiesEdit

OZAK was the scene of genocidal activities. Its commander, Higher SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik, had become one of the most feared Nazi leaders in Eastern Europe after liquidating the Jewish ghettoes in Warsaw and Białystok and supervising the construction of the extermination camps at Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibór, Majdanek, and Treblinka. [4]He commanded all the camps in Poland from 1941 to 1943. After serving briefly as Gauleiter of Vienna he had been posted to Trieste, where to the very end he ran the Risiera di San Sabba prison, the only SS camp ever set-up on Italian soil. [5].

Globocnik, returning to his native city in triumph in mid-September 1943, established his office at Via Nizza 21 in Trieste and began to carry out Einsatz R, the systematic persecution of Jews, partisans and anti-Nazi politicians in Friuli, Istria and other areas of the Croatian Adriatic coastline. His staff of 92, mostly members of the German and Ukrainian SS with killing experience gained in Operation Reinhard, was quickly expanded to combat the unrelenting partisan activity throughout the region. Globocnik's domain included Risiera di San Sabba, a large, disused and decrepit rice mill at Ratto della Pileria 43 in the Triestine suburb of San Sabba.[6] Under his supervision it was converted into the only Nazi extermination camp in Italian territory. The camp was used to detain hostages, partisans and political prisoners, and as a collection and transit camp for Jews being deported to Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Mauthausen. This camp opened on 20 October 1943 and was staffed primarily by German and Ukrainian members of the SS under the command of SS-Sturmbannführer Christian Wirth, former commander of Belzec extermination camp. Wirth was killed by partisans on 26 May 1944, he was replaced by SS-Obersturmbannführer Dietrich Allers.

Over 25,000 Italian, Slovene, Croatian and Jewish civilians passed through the San Sabba camp, about 5,000 were killed there by various methods including gassing. Today the rice mill is an Italian National Memorial Site. [7] The camp's commanders and collaborators were tried in Trieste [8] in 1976, but their sentences were never carried out.

Since an Allied landing in the area was anticipated, OZAK also hosted a substantial German military contingent, the Befehlshaber Operationszone Adriatisches Küstenland commanded by General der Gebirgstruppe Ludwig Kübler. On 28 September 1944, these units were redesignated XCVII Armeekorps. Nearly every available armored vehicle, modern or obsolete, was pressed into service with Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Ordnungspolizei, or collaborationist Italian and Slovenian units.

The end of the warEdit

On 29 April 1945, Waffen-SS troops set free the remaining inmates of the San Sabba camp and demolished the gas chamber and incinerator building, to destroy evidence of war crimes. On 30 April, several thousand volunteers of the Italian anti-fascist Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale rose up against the Nazis. On 1 May, Globocnik was given command of a chaotic assortment of German and collaborationist troops converging on Trieste as they retreated from Italy and Yugoslavia. These units were immediately engaged by the Partisans' 4th Army before surrendering to the New Zealand 2nd Division commanded by NZ Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Freyberg on the evening of 2 May. However, fighting continued between Tito's army and remnant Wehrmacht and collaborationist forces for several days. The Partisans began to withdraw from areas west of the Isonzo river on 15 May.[9][10] On 11 June Yugoslav troops began to withdraw from Trieste.[11]

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. Template:It icon http://www.panzer-ozak.it/immagini/mappaozak100grande.gif
  2. A copy of an existing document is available online. It reads
    "In addition to my (...) order of the commander of the Greater German Reich in Italy and the organisation of the occupied Italian area from 10 September 1943 I determine:
    The supreme commanders in the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast consisting of the provinces of Friaul, Görz, Triest, Istrien, Fiume, Quarnero, Laibach, and in the Prealpine Operations Zone consisting of the provinces of Bozen, Trient and Belluno receive the fundamental instructions for their activity from me.
    Führer's headquarters, 10 September 1943.
    The Führer Gen. Adolf Hitler".
    See second document at
    http://www.karawankengrenze.at/ferenc/document/show/id/317?symfony=ad81b9f2cd1e66a7c973073ed0532df1
  3. Tone Ferenc, The German Occupier in Ljubljana p211; Jozo Tomašević, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941-1945 p122, available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=fqUSGevFe5MC&dq=the+chetniks+by+jozo+toma%C5%A1evi%C4%87&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=-LhVfrc7Pg&sig=5MdcxAM9qowMnXF0Szy38oeOC1k#PPR1,M1
  4. Odilo Globocnik
  5. Gallery - The Risiera di San Sabba - Photos
  6. Risiera di San Sabba
  7. ANED | The camps | The "Risiera" National Memorial Site
  8. ANED | The camps | Risiera. The Trial
  9. UK Official History &#149 Trieste and Austrian Crises
  10. II: Confrontation with the Yugoslavs | NZETC
  11. WARS – SECOND WORLD WAR - The Army - 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand

External linksEdit

it:Zona d'operazioni del Litorale adriatico he:האזור המבצעי החוף האדריאטי uk:Операційна Зона Адріатичного Узбережжя

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