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New Order (Neuordnung. french: Ordre Nouveau) denotes the political, economic, and social system that the Nazis hoped to establish in Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The establishment of the New Order was proclaimed by Adolf Hitler in 1940. The New Order meant absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe.

Geopolitical strategy behind the New OrderEdit

Hitler’s ideas about eastward expansion that he promulgated in Mein Kampf were greatly influenced by his contact during his 1924 imprisonment with his geopolitical mentor Karl Haushofer. [1] One of Haushofer’s primary geopolitical concepts was that Germany get control of the Eurasian heartland so Germany could attain eventual world domination. [2]

Initial phase of the establishment of the New OrderEdit

The initial phase of the establishment of the New Order was:

  • Third, the neutralization or the conquest of the United Kingdom. Initially, Hitler wanted to make a deal with Great Britain in which the British Empire would be given a free hand over the oceans of the world and Germany would be given a free hand in Europe. However, when Britain refused this deal, Hitler planned the conquest of Great Britain in Operation Sea Lion, which was to be implemented after the anticipated German victory in the Battle of Britain. After the German conquest of Britain, it was planned to establish a Reichskommissariat Gross-Britannien under the command of General Franz Alfred Six. The allegedly pro-German Duke of Windsor would have been restored as King Edward VIII as Hitler’s puppet king. Most English men would have been exported as slave labor to the East. About 2,000,000 young Nordic English women would have been forced into stud farms as part of the lebensborn program to be impregnated by SS men to help populate the East. [3]

The first two phases of the initial plan for the establishment of the New Order were successful, but Hitler was unable to implement the third phase since the United Kingdom won the Battle of Britain.

Implementation of the long range plan for the New OrderEdit

Implementation of the long range plan for the New Order was begun on 22 June 1941 with Operation Barbarossa--the invasion of Russia. By 1942 the military regimes called the General Gouvernment in Poland, the Reichskommissariat Ostland in the Baltic states and White Russia, and the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in Ukraine had been established.

Nazi party philosopher Alfred Rosenberg (who, incidentally, protested against the inhumane policy shown toward the Slavs) was the Minister for the Eastern Territories nominally in charge of the project, and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, was assigned to implement the enslavement and extermination of the non-Aryan population. The long range plan, as detailed by Hitler in Mein Kampf, was annexation of large eastern territories for German settlement, eventually expanding the territory of Greater Germany to where its eastern border would be the Ural Mountains. This would facilitate Germany's obtaining lebensraum [2]. It was planned to set up a Reichskommissariat Moskau that would include the Moscow metropolitan area and vast tracts of adjacent European Russia, and a Reichskommissariat Kaukasus in the Caucasus area. This policy was accompanied by the extermination of their Jewish population (see final solution) as well as the enslavement of their Slavic population, who it was planned would be made slave laborers on the estates to be granted to SS men after the conquest of European Russia. Each SS man "gentleman farmer" was expected to father at least seven children. [4]German women were encouraged to have as many children as possible to populate the anticipated Eastern territories to be annexed. To encourage this fertility policy, the lebensborn program was expanded and the state decoration known as the Gold Honor Cross of the German Mother was instituted, which was awarded to German women who bore eight or more children for the Third Reich. Himmler envisaged a German population of 300,000,000 by 2000.

The New Order in EuropeEdit

File:Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en.png

The map on the right shows the extent of the New Order in Europe at its maximum extent in 1942. Light blue is the traditional color used in cartography in Germany to represent Germany and its sphere of influence, as a contrast to pink or red, the traditional color used in cartography to represent Great Britain and its sphere of influence, the British Empire (in this map, the color dark pink is used to represent the Allies).

Secret diplomatic conference to divide AsiaEdit

In 1942, a secret diplomatic conference was held between Nazi Germany and the Japanese Empire in which they agreed to divide Asia along a line that followed the Yenisei River to the border of China, and then along the border of China and the Soviet Union, the northern and western borders of Afghanistan, and the border between Iran and India (what is now Pakistan was then part of India). It was agreed that after Nazi German troops had reached the Ural Mountains, Japan would invade the Soviet Union from the east to finish it off and the German and Japanese troops would meet at the Yenisei River. Nazi Germany planned to establish a Reichskommissariat West Siberien between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisei River for housing in concentration camps as slave labor for industrial enterprises those Slavs who were not being worked as slaves on the estates of the German farmers west of the Urals.[5]

In 1942, Croatia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia (including the German-dominated autonomous area of Banat) were already satellites of Nazi Germany (Montenegro, and Greece were satellites of Italy; Albania had been annexed by Italy). After Germany had conquered European Russia, the plan was to then make Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan all also become satellites of Germany.

Plan for German domination of central AfricaEdit

The general staff of the German Navy produced in 1940 a map showing a proposed German colonial empire in sub-Saharan Africa extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean.[6]

Plan for German domination of South AmericaEdit

Germany planned to dominate South America east of the Andes Mountains.[7] Hitler planned to open up Argentina (a country already having a large population of German origin) to extensive German settlement.[8]

Hitler's plan for the eventual conquest of North AmericaEdit

In the unpublished transcript Zweites Buch, written in 1928, Hitler envisioned an apocalyptic air war of conquest against the United States by his successor in 1980, conducted by a great fleet of German long range bombers.

Approximately nine months before the United States entered WWII, American president Franklin D. Roosevelt made a reference the New Order in a speach he gave on March 15, 1941[9]:

... Nazi forces are not seeking mere modifications in colonial maps or in minor European boundaries. They openly seek the destruction of all elective systems of government on every continent, including our own. They seek to establish systems of government based on the regimentation of all human beings by a handful of individual rulers who seize power by force.
Yes, these men and their hypnotized followers call this a "New Order." It is not new, and it is not order. For order among nations presupposes something enduring, some system of justice under which individuals over a long period of time are willing to live. Humanity will never permanently accept a system imposed by conquest, and based on slavery. These modern tyrants find it necessary to their plans to eliminate all democracies — eliminate them one by one. The nations of Europe, and indeed we, ourselves, did not appreciate that purpose. We do now. ...

Hitler's plans for India and Operation MaximillianEdit

File:Bose and Rommel.jpg

Nazi Germany did cultivate a close interest in the affairs of India, the crown jewel of the British empire. Hitler supported an indigenous military militia led by Subhas Chandra Bose to keep the British pinned down.

Hitler allegedly wanted to complete the unfinished task of 'Alexander the Great' in India and was keen to discover the Aryan roots of the Indian civilization. He believed that a 'super-aryan' being existed in the Himalayas. Hitler also sent an expedition team consisting of Nazi racial theorists and scientists along with a strong SS contingent to study the racial links with Indian Aryans.

An invasion was planned in the general direction towards India after the invasion of Soviet Union was complete. Erich von Manstein had encouraged Wilhelm Keitel to consider such a plan. The expected resistance from the British Indian Army was considered to be vastly inferior. The possible dividends would be huge, not only in terms of a great conquest, but also the total demoralization of Britain. The OKW with its usual rigor started working on a plan by mid 1940. The minute details and plans for the invasion of India were in place by April, 1941. The operation was codenamed 'Maximillian'.


Operation Maximillian

Operation Maximillian would take off after the Soviet Union was secured up to the Urals and the Afrika Korps reaching up to Iraq. After stabilization, a massive invasion force was to be assembled in the deserts of Iraq. Three army groups were to be pressed into action. The Nazi war machine would then thrust through into India via Afghanistan. The first group would follow a northern route hugging the Himalayas and reach its final destination in Calcutta; the second group would do a pincer movement into central India and return to Delhi; and the third group would sweep down into the southern Indian heartland and capture the port city of Madras.

A strategic reserve consisting of the Reich's most elite SS Panzer units was to be located near Lahore. Operation Maximilian was to be halted near Burma, the Reich's border with Imperial Japan. All operations were to be concluded before 1945.


Racial Plans for India

Most of the Indian-Aryan race was considered to be contaminated by mixing with other lower races. Himmler had identified purest of the Aryan castes in India to be Germanized; the rest would either be exterminated or subjugated for slave labor.

Hitler's plans for retirementEdit

At the time of the initial invasion of the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941, Hitler had expected to win victory in World War II by 1945, and he then planned, after completing the construction of the Welthauptstadt Germania plan of Albert Speer for Berlin, to hold a great World's Fair in Berlin in 1950 and then retire to his hometown of Linz.[10]

Abandonment of the project for the New OrderEdit

After the decisive German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad on 2 February 1943, Germany was forced onto the defensive and was no longer able to actively pursue implementation of the New Order in the Soviet Union, although the genocide against Jews, Gypsies, and other minorities continued. The New Order project was officially renounced at the end of 1944 because Himmler hoped to get the Western Allies to agree to a separate peace apart from the Soviet Union, and to do so, he wanted to appear more humane. In March 1945, Himmler even agreed to meet with a representative of the World Jewish Congress, saying "Let's bury the hatchet".[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Geopolitics and Globalization in the Twentieth Century By Brian W. Blouet (2001):
  2. Derwent, Whittlesey German Strategy for World Conquest New York:1942 Farrar and Rinehart
  3. Clarke, Comer England Under Hitler: Revealed at Last—The Secret Nazi Plans for the Rape of England New York:1961 Ballantine Books (paperback edition) (The part of the material in the book referenced here was based on an interview with retired SS general Franz Six at his home in West Germany)
  4. Padfield, Peter Himmler New York:1990--Henry Holt Page 317
  5. Weinberg, Gerhard L. Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders Cambridge, England, United Kingdom:2005--Cambridge University Press [1]
  6. Padfield, Peter Himmler New York:1990--Henry Holt Page 309
  7. Derwent, Whittlesey German Strategy for World Conquest New York:1942 Farrar and Rinehart
  8. Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler New York:1977 New American Library Page 73
  9. Speech by FDR to the White House Correspondents Association on U.S. involvement in the war in Europe
  10. Speer, Albert Inside the Third Reich New York:1970--Macmillan Page 139
  11. Padfield, Peter Himmler New York:1990--Henry Holt Pages 571-579

See alsoEdit

he:הסדר החדש nl:Nieuwe Orde