The Kulturbund Deutscher Juden ('Cultural Federation of German Jews'; est. in 1933, in April 1935 the Nazi authorities - forcing to delete the term German from the name - imposed to change the name into Jüdischer Kulturbund, i.e. Jewish Cultural Federation.), also known as the Kubu, was an institution created by unemployed Jewish performers with the consent of the Nazis "for" the Jewish population.
After the exclusion of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent from participating in almost all organisations and public events, the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden tried to provide some compensation, as tried Israelitisches Familienblatt.
Kulturbund put on theatrical performances, concerts, exhibitions, operas and lectures all over Germany, performed by Jewish entertainers, artists, writers, scientists etc., which were no longer permitted by the National Socialist regime to appear before audiences. Thus Jewish performers could earn again their, however scarce, livelihood. The performances took place at authorized segregated venues with "Jewish only" attendance, meaning Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent and their eventually Gentile spouses.
After the November Pogroms on November 9-10, 1938 the Kulturbund was allowed to continue its activities, however the discrimination and persecution of Jews had driven many into impoversihment. The number of venues and of ensemble members was reduced. On December 16 Hans Hinkel, State commissioner for Prussian theatre affairs including the Kulturbund, in Goebbels' Reich's Propaganda Ministry, declared in front of Dr. Werner Levie (*1903-1945*), a Dutchman and therefore one of the few available members - not hiding or arrested - of Kulturbund's executive board, that until the end of December all the still existing 76 Jewish German publishing companies are to be shut down or sold to so-called Aryan owners. The few publications, which would still be permitted to appear, were to be directed by a publishing department to be formed within Kulturbund.
In January 1939 the Kulturbund's publishing department opened in the offices formerly used by the Zionist Jüdische Rundschau, which had been shut down right after the Pogrom, with its former editor, Erich Liepmann, being the manager of the publishing department. The Kulturbund managed to save a great deal of the book stocks of the to-be-ceased publishing houses from being pulped. Levie reached the concession, that Jewish publishers obliged to liquidate their companies, might export their book stocks on their own until April 1939 if the respective purchasers would pay in foreign exchange to the Reichsbank. However, the publishers would be paid in inconvertible Reichsmarks only.
Kulturbund's publishing department bought the remaining book stocks from their old proprietors at a discount of 80-95% of the original price and would only pay, once proceeds from sales abroad or to German or Austrian Jews and Gentiles of Jewish descent would materialise. Also Austria, annexed by Germany in March 1938, was covered by the Kulturbund's publishing department.
The Propaganda Ministry only allowed the Kulturbund to continue to exist, if it would change its statutes to that effect that the minister (Goebbels) may - at any time - interfere in affairs of the executive board, even dissolve the Kulturbund and dispose of its assets. The changed statutes came into effect on 4 March 1939.
Kulturbund's publishing department sold books from its stock to Jewish Germans and Austrians and thus created a surplus, which partly covered losses in the performing department. A considerable sum was transferred to the Central Office for Jewish Emigration, to pay emigration fees levied from lucky receivers of foreign visas, who, however, were too poor to pay them.
Kulturbund's executive secretary Levie remigrated to the Netherlands at the end of August 1939. He was first succeeded by Johanna Marcus, who soon also emigrated and then by Willy Pless. The Kulturbund's performing activities nonetheless were embraced by the Jewish population who previously were barred from all cultural and entertainment events.
- Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Martin Goldsmith from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
- ↑ Cf. Ingrid Schmidt, 'Kulturbund Deutscher Juden – Jüdischer Kulturbund Berlin: Ein Namensstreit?', In: Geschlossene Vorstellung: Der Jüdische Kulturbund in Deutschland 1933-1941, Akademie der Künste (ed.), Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 1992, pp. 223-230, here p. 229.
- ↑ Werner Levie, 'Arbeitsbericht des Jüdischen Kulturbundes in Deutschland e.V. vom 1.10.1938-30.6.1939', activity report rendered on 12 July 1939, Berlin, published in: Geschlossene Vorstellung: Der Jüdische Kulturbund in Deutschland 1933-1941, Akademie der Künste (ed.), Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 1992, pp. 321-340, here pp. 323seq.
- ↑ Only few publishers succeeded to export their books, because the foreign market for German books was narrow. Impoverished German emigrants couldn't buy but eventually flooded the western markets by even selling their last belongings. Erich Liepmann, the executive manager of the publishing department emigrated to Palestine in summer 1939. There Liepmann became Kulturbund's sales agent for books. The Palestinian Schocken publishing house could buy 90% of the book stock, which earlier its Berlin branch Schocken Verlag had to sell to the Kulturbund. Few other publishers, like Joseph Schlesinger from Vienna, did the same by their foreign subsidiaries in Budapest and Amsterdam.
- ↑ Bernd Braun, 'Bücher im Schlussverkauf: Die Verlagsabteilung des Jüdischen Kulturbunds', In: Geschlossene Vorstellung: Der Jüdische Kulturbund in Deutschland 1933-1941, Akademie der Künste (ed.), Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 1992, pp. 155-168, here p. 166.